The Highest Level: Ihsan

قال الله عز وجل: { هَلْ جَزَاء الْإِحْسَانِ إِلَّا الْإِحْسَانُ} سورة الرحمن 60.

Allah the Exalted says: {Is the reward for good (Ihsan) anything other than good?} (Surah 55, verse 60).

Narrated Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him: “Once while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, a man appeared before us, dressed in pure white clothes, with dark black hair, without any sign of travel. None of us recognized him. He sat with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, resting his knees against the knees of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and placed his palms on the thighs of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and said: ‘O Muhammad, inform me about Islam.’  The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘Islam is to testify that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that Muhammad ﷺ is the messenger of Allah, and to establish prayer, to pay Zakah (the obligatory charity), to fast the month of Ramadan, and to perform pilgrimage to Makkah if you are capable of it.’ The man said: ‘You have said the truth.’  Umar said: We wondered at him, first asking and then confirming it as the truth!

Then the man said: ‘Inform me about faith (Iman).’  The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘It is to truly believe in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His messengers, in the Hereafter, and in the Divine Decree, the good of it and the bad of it.’

The man said: ‘You have said the truth. [Now] inform me about Ihsan.’  The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

‘It is to worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you do not see Him, He, verily, sees you.’

The man said: ‘Inform me about the Hour (of the Day of Judgment).’  The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘The one asked about it knows no more than the inquirer.’ The man said: ‘Tell me some of its indications and signs.’  The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, and that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herders vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings.’  Umar said: Then the man went on his way and I stayed with the Messenger of Allah for a long while.

The Messenger of Allah then said to me: ‘O Umar, do you know who the inquirer was?’ I replied: Allah and His Messenger know best.’  He said: ‘That was Angel Gabriel who came to you in order to instruct you in matters of your religion.’ ”

(Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Ahmad).


In this beautiful and eloquent hadith, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ summarizes the main tenets of Islam and its major foundation.  The scholars said this incident occurred towards the end of the Prophet’s life, to clarify and summarize the important pillars of this deen.  Angel Gabriel and the Prophet ﷺ divided the tenets of Islam into three levels: Islam, Iman (faith), and Ihsan.  If we think of them as levels, then the basic level is Islam, the middle higher level is Iman, and the highest level is Ihsan.  Like any other structure, the highest level can be reached only after perfecting the levels before it.

The three concepts of Islam, Iman, and Ihsan are not limited to the spiritual heart; rather, they are firm beliefs of the heart but also actions by the limbs.  In other words, the belief in the heart must translate into good deeds and acts.  For example, one of the pillars of Islam is the Prayer. So the Muslim must believe in the importance and obligation of the Five Daily Prayers, but his Islam would not be perfect until he physically perfects his prayer.  Likewise, one of the pillars of Iman is the belief in Qadr (Divine Decree or pre-destiny), but Iman would not be perfect until the Muslim learns not to complain in the face of adversaries and calamities but instead to bear them patiently and seek Allah’s help. Finally, the Muslim has firm belief in the concept of Ihsan, and that Allah the Exalted is always watching him and his actions, but the Muslim’s Ihsan would not be complete until he translates that belief into action and starts fulfilling Allah’s commands by performing obligations (wajibat) and avoiding actions Allah has forbidden (sins).


One of the ninety-nine Honorable Names of Allah is: الرقيب (the Ever-Watchful). Allah is also: البصير (the All-Seeing), السميع (the All-Hearing), العليم (the All-Knower), and الخبير (the All-Aware).  That is, every creature is under the constant watch and continuous surveillance of Allah, the Exalted.  This watch never ceases and is never interrupted, as Allah is the Perfect God and neither sleep nor slumber affects Him.  Furthermore, Allah the Almighty has assigned two angels for every human, who write his good and bad deeds in a special record that will be presented to the slave on the Day of Judgment.  Thus, nothing of the slave’s actions is ever missed by Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.  Allah the Exalted says in Qur’an:

{Truly, nothing is hidden from Allah, in the earth or in the heavens} (Surah 3, verse 5).

This sense of being under the constant watch of Allah the Most High, and the resulting attention to one’s actions, is called Ihsan.  Ihsan has two parts: First is the belief that we are being watched by Allah the Exalted all the time. And second is the sense of shyness and the effort to follow Allah’s commands and avoid sins that results from realizing Allah is watching at all times.


Once the Muslim realizes he or she is under the constant watch of Allah, the Muslim tries his best to show respect and reverence to the One Who is watching. The Muslim feels shy of disobeying the Mighty One who is watching. Moreover, the Muslim tries her best to be in the best form and shape before the Only Lord and true God. So the Muslim tries to do as many good deeds as possible and do them only to please Allah Who is watching him during the day and night, during the morning and evening, in public and in private and on all occasions. This then develops into him a deep and heightened sense of Divine awareness that brings with it a higher level of piety (taqwa), righteousness (salah), and Iman (faith) such that he feels close to Allah all the time and spends most of his time trying to please his Lord by doing good deeds and avoiding sins. This condition then is called Ihsan, and it is as mentioned above the highest level of the religion.

This elevated level of Ihsan requires struggle and fending off the desires of the Evil tempting Self and the temptations of Satan and the devils.  Ihsan requires perfecting the stages of Islam and Iman (faith) first, then gradually building one’s Ihsan. Ihsan requires constant reminder of this continued watch by making Dhikr and glorifying Allah all the time, as well as daily repentance and frequent istighfar (seeking forgiveness from Allah) and asking Allah for the favor of this special state.

It is not an easy task, but Allah’s rewards are not cheap, either. In return for this struggle, Allah provides blessings both in this world, represented by a peaceful contented life, and in the Hereafter through the highest levels in Jannah or Paradise.  We pray Allah to guide us to the Right Path and grant us from His Favor.  And Allah knows best.


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